Discussion Papers

No.886 Air and maritime transport connectivity during COVID-19 pandemic

by So UMEZAKI and Jinichi UEMURA

March 2023


This study quantitatively investigates the effect of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on air and maritime transportation worldwide to identify indicators of structural changes in the air and maritime transportation markets. The main findings are as follows: (1) the spread of COVID-19 in terms of the number of new cases adversely affects air connectivity, whereas its effect on maritime connectivity is insignificant; (2) most of the variations in connectivity measures are explained by unobservable fixed effects; (3) cargo transportation, both air and maritime, is adjusted accordingly in response to weakened connectivity by a reduction in passenger air flights; and (4) divergent reactions to the pandemic may widen the existing gaps in terms of international connectivity.

Keywords: COVID-19, connectivity, air transportation, maritime transportation

JEL classification: L93, L92, R49

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