Discussion Papers

No.442 Minority Type Matters:Ethnic Diversity and Tolerance in 29 European Democracies

by HAZAMA Yasushi

February 2014


Past research has shown that having a large population of ethnic minorities beyond the neighborhood level arouses intolerance in the majority. However, this paper presents the argument that the effect of minority size on tolerance depends on minority type: the less subject the minority is to negative stereotyping, the more favorable the effect that minority size has on tolerance. In this study, a hierarchical linear model was applied to a dataset on advanced and emerging democracies in Europe. The analysis shows that when the duration and level of democracy are controlled for, ethnic tolerance was associated positively with native minority size and negatively with foreign population size.

Keywords: political tolerance, ethnic minorities, Europe

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