Discussion Papers

No.880 Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy in Indonesia: Association between trust in the government and vaccination coverage


February 2023


Although the effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines has been verified in numerous studies globally, many countries have experienced low vaccination coverage due to the reluctance of people to be vaccinated. While the determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex, we examine the effect of trust in the government on regional Covid-19 vaccination rates in Indonesia. Indonesia started its Covid-19 vaccination program earlier than other countries in Southeast Asia. However, the proportion of Indonesia's population that is fully vaccinated is lower than in most of its neighboring countries. To examine how trust in the government affects vaccine coverage, we conduct a cross-section analysis that shows that the 2019 election vote margin of incumbent President Joko Widodo and the share of households with children who had participated in the government's routine childhood immunization program as of 2019 have positive and statistically significant correlations with rates of full Covid-19 vaccination from September 2021 until March 2022. The results suggest that hesitancy to the Covid-19 vaccine associated with low trust in the government under Joko Widodo may have significantly delayed vaccination.

Keywords: vote margin, routine childhood immunization, 2019 Presidential election, Joko Widodo, measles and rubella (MR) vaccination

JEL classification: D72, I12, I18

Please note that discussion papers are works in various stages of progress and most have not been edited and proofread and may contain errors of fact or judgment. Revised versions of these papers may subsequently appear in more formal publication series. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s). The IDE does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included and accepts no responsibility for any consequences arising from its use.