In developing countries, mutual recognition of professional qualifications is critically important for the export of services, as well as for economic and human development in general. In particular, it is widely considered that mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) have a huge potential to facilitate the flow of services. However, in reality, there are too many mechanisms that intend to facilitate the mutual recognition at various levels – country level, bilateral level, regional level, international level and global level (e.g. WTO). As a result, the multi-layered mutual recognition system as a whole has become significantly complicated. This study will identify the effectiveness of each mutual recognition mechanism and the relationship (consistency) among the various mutual recognition measures, by conducting in-depth interviews with government officials and professional associations.