Research Activities

Research Projects

Understanding Informal Payments in Kazakhstan: Causes and Implications (2016_2_40_003)


This project focuses on the informal payments that are prevalent in Kazakhstan's education and healthcare sectors. While gift-giving to teachers and doctors was widespread in socialist times, following the market reforms, "market principles" have come to pervade informal exchanges. It has become more common to pay in cash for the favor provided, with consideration given based on the market price and other factors. This project explores the reasons why informal payments have become a de facto norm, and it also examines the implications of the prevalence of such practices.


April 2016 - March 2018

Members of the Research Project
[ Organizer ] Oka Natsuko
[ Co-researcher ] Sharipova, Dina (Assistant Professor, State Retrenchment and Informal Payments in Kazakhstan's Education Sector)
  • IDE Research Bulletin
  • IDE Discussion Paper