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APLセミナー(アジ研パワーランチセミナー)

Offshoring Health Risks: The Impact of the U.S. Lead Regulation on Infant Health in Mexico

APLセミナー(アジ研パワーランチセミナー)は、アジア経済研究所の研究者のみならず、外部の研究者、学生の方にも参加いただけるリサーチワークショップで、お昼の時間にアジア経済研究所(海浜幕張)の会議室で開催しております。

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お問い合わせ先

ジェトロ・アジア経済研究所 APL幹事
金 志映 E-mail:Jiyoung_KimE-mail
雷 蕾 E-mail:Lei_LeiE-mail
長田 紀之 E-mail:Noriyuki_OsadaE-mail
成果普及課 Tel:043-299-9536

開催日時

2016年6月20日 (月曜) 12時15分~13時15分

会場

要 旨

Lead is a metal known to affect almost every organ and system in the human body. However, lead still exists in ambient air in the U.S. and continues to endanger public health and welfare. In response, the EPA substantially strengthened the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead in 2008. The revised standard is 10 times tighter than the previous one set over 30 years ago. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the new NAAQS for lead on (i) environmental quality in the U.S., (ii) trade patterns between the U.S. and Mexico and (iii) infant health in Mexico. A major challenge in existing studies in understanding environment-health nexus is to identify the sources of pollution in ambient air and disentangle the pollution exposure effect on health from other sources of pollution and/or from other determinants of health. We overcome these issues with two novel advantages in our approach: 1) We employ unique combination of public/non-public datasets linking trade, environment and health outcomes both in the U.S. and Mexico that provide a rare level of detail and that were not previously employed in the related fields. Importantly, our data contain exact locations of polluting plants and residential locations at a fine disaggregated level that allow us to identify critical distance over which households are exposed to pollution emitted from sources. 2) We identify exogenous variations in environmental quality under quasi-experimental research settings that enable us to address a large set of time-variant factors. These two cutting-edge features help uncover causal relationships. We find that the new lead regulation substantially improved the ambient air quality in the U.S.; the concentrations of lead in ambient air fell in areas close to lead-emitting industrial plants than areas slightly away from these plants in the U.S. Our evidence suggests that such improvements in domestic environmental quality are driven by increased exports of lead contents to Mexico for recycle and production. We also find that exports from lead-emitting Mexican firms to the U.S. have also increased. Consequently, we find that the birth outcomes in Mexico deteriorated in proximity to battery recycling plants as compared with areas slightly away from them. Our findings are consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis suggesting that the stringent environmental policy in a developed country can induce offshoring pollution and health risks to a country with lax environmental standards.

講師

Kensuke Teshima (Centro de Investigación Económica Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM) )

司会
使用言語

日本語