Managing Ethnicity under Authoritarian Rule: Transborder Nationalisms in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan
1.2 Why Conflict Did Not Occur: Explanations in the Extant Literature
1.2.1 Imperfect Kazakhisation?
1.2.3 Frame Analysis
1.3 Theoretical Framework of the Study
1.3.3 Applying the Control Model to Kazakhstan
1.4 Transborder Ethnic Community: A Source of Conflict?
1.5 Methodology, Delimitations, and Definitions of the Study
1.6 The Structure of the Study
2.1.1 Russians: An Ill-Defined Identity
2.1.2 Uzbeks: A Strong Sense of Rootedness
2.1.3 Uighurs: Multiple Migrations and Contested Indigenousness
2.1.4 Koreans: A Deported People
2.2 Ethnic Movements under Perestroika
2.2.1 Emerging Kazakh Nationalism
2.2.2 Language and Sovereignty Debates
2.2.3 Non-titular Ethnic Movements
3.2.1 Changing Ethnic Composition
3.2.2 Demographic Manipulation
3.3 Language Issue
3.3.1 Language Policy
3.3.2 Non-Russian Minority Languages
3.4 Ethnic Control over the State’s Personnel Policy
4.1.1 Political Change Processes since Independence
4.1.2 Constitutional and Legal Control
4.2 Case Studies
Peoples of Kazakhstan
5.1.1 Functions of the Assembly of the Peoples of Kazakhstan
5.1.2 Russians: Unification from Above
5.1.3 Non-Russian Minorities: Seeking ‘Cooperation’ with the Authorities
5.2 Controlling Elections
5.2.1 Ethnicity and Parliamentary Elections
5.2.2 Minority Mobilisation for Elections
6.1.1 Developments in Russia’s Compatriot Policy
6.1.2 The Citizenship Law and the Dual Citizenship Issue
6.1.3 Border Issues
6.2 Uzbeks: ‘Ignored’ by the Kin State?
6.2.1 The Absence of Compatriot Policy
6.2.2 Border Issues
6.3 Uighurs: Labelled as ‘Terrorists’
6.3.1. Post-Soviet Border Delimitation between Kazakhstan and China
6.3.2 Renewed Links between Xinjiang and Kazakhstani Uighurs: Transnational Movement for Independence?
6.4 Koreans: A Minority with Two Kin States
6.4.1 South-North Rivalry over the Koreans in the Soviet Union
6.4.2 South Korea: Adored Homeland?
7.2 Triadic Nexuses in Kazakhstan: The Limits of Primordial Ethnic Ties
7.3 Diversity among the Four Transnational Communities
7.4 Constitutional Reforms in 2007
7.5 Future Prospects: Is Ethnic Stability Sustainable in Kazakhstan?