- Barkan, Joel D.  "Elections in Developing Countries," in Richard Rose ed., International Encyclopedia of Elections , Washington D.C.: CQ Press.
- Binder, Loenard  In a Moment of Enthusiasm: Political Power and the Second Stratum in Egypt , Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Dahl, Robert A.  Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition , New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Diamond, Larry  Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation , Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Dix, Robert H.  "Cleavage Structures and Party Systems in Latin America," Comparative Politics 22, (1), pp. 23-37.
- Kitschelt, Herbert  "Formation of Party Cleavages in Post-Communist Democracies: Theoretical Propositions," Party Politics , 1(4), pp. 447-472.
- Lust-Okar, Ellen  "The Management and Manipulation of Political Opposition," Comparative Politics , 36 (2), pp. 159-179.
- Huntington, Samuel P.  The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century , Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
- Mainwaring, Scott P.  Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: The Case of Brazil , Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Mozaffar, Shaheen, James R. Scarritt, and Glen Galaich  "Electoral Institutions, Ethnopolitical Cleavages, and Party Systems in Africa's Emerging Democracies," American Political Science Review 97 (3), pp. 379-390.
- Özbudun, Ergun  "Institutionalizing Competitive Elections in Developing Societies," in Myron Weiner and Ergun Özbudun eds., Competitive Elections in Developing Countries , Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
- Sartori, Giovanni  Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 間 寧  「亀裂構造と政党制：概念整理と新興民主主義国への適用」 『アジア経済』2006年5月号