Economic Integration and Recycling in Asia
Michikazu Kojima, and Etsuyo Michida Eds. International Trade in Recyclable and Hazardous Waste in Asia Edward Elgar、2013年発行
1.1 A Historical Overview of the International Trade of Recyclable Waste and Hazardous Waste
1.2 Trade Measures on Recyclable Waste, Hazardous Waste, and Secondhand Goods
1.3 Current Issues Relating to the International Trade of Hazardous Waste and Recyclable Waste
As economic integration in the world has been deepened, international trade of secondhand goods, recyclable waste and hazardous waste have increased. Historically, major concern on the international trade of them has been shifted. This paper reviews the shift of the concern on international trade of secondhand goods, recyclable waste and hazardous waste has been shifted. Currently, the major issues relating to the international trade of hazardous waste and recyclable waste are preventing illegal and illicit transboundary movement of hazardous waste and promoting the utilization of recyclable waste internationally. Appropriate trade regulations should be adopted and enforced.
2.1 Trade Flow of Recyclables in Asia
2.2 Factors that Affect Recyclable Trade Flows
2.3 Other Determinants in Location of Recycling Industry
2.4 Trade Flow and Environmental/Trade Regulation
International trade of recyclables surge in Asia. This chapter shows the recent trend of the recyclable trade in the Asian region and examines the factors behind on both demand and supply side. We describe a mechanism how changes in trade and environmental regulations on the recyclables interact with the trade flow and the illegal trade. Revealed comparative advantage shows that each country has different comparative advantage in importing the recyclables. Especially, China has high comparative advantage in importing waste plastic and waste paper. However, geographical concentration of recyclable imports might pose risks for the sustainable trade flow due to sudden policy change.
3.1 Basic trends in recyclable waste imports to China
3.2 legal traffic in secondhand electric and electronic equipment and e-waste scrap to China
3.3 Recent trends in recycling in China
China began importing recyclable waste in the 1990s because of a scarcity of raw materials in China. In order to secure the resources needed to support the high rate of economic growth, China imports various recyclable wastes. Although China is actively utilizing recyclable wastes from overseas, serious environmental pollution has been generated by improper recycling and cases of shipbacks and smuggling still continue. In this chapter, the author will try to characterize the current recyclable waste trade in China using custom statistics and field surveys, and to identify major trends and areas of progress that China faces in connection with recycling.
4.1 Korea's regulatory system on waste trade
4.2 Background on increased regulation of waste trade: An introduction to the Import/Export Declaration System
4.3 Current Korean regulatory system for waste trade
4.4 Policy challenges for more effective implementation of waste trade regulation
This chapter reviews the legal framework and implementation of the current regulation on transboundary waste in Korea. Through this review, policy challenges and performance issues in the regulation of waste trade are elucidated and several implications are also identified. In addition, several site investigations regarding the waste trade have been carried out to comprehensively understand the regulation and actual practice of waste trade.
More importantly, maintaining uniformity between regulations to control transboundary waste and strengthening the pre-trade stage should be necessary for more effective management. Through the case of coal ash imported from Japan, it becomes clear that the potential effect of transboundary waste on the status of recycling in the importing country should be considered when it comes to waste trade.
5.1 Philippines' Waste Management System
5.2 The Implementation of the Philippines Republic Act 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (ESWMA) of 2000
5.3 The Role of Governance Towards Effective Waste Management Implementation
5.4 Promoting the Waste Recycling Industries
Like other developing countries, waste management has become a major problem in the Philippines for the past decades. This paper provides an overview of the waste management and recycling in the Philippines and the responses of the government to address various problems brought about by improper waste management. It reviews the policies related to waste management from 1938 to 2001, including the latest and perhaps the most comprehensive solid waste management policy in the country, the Philippines Republic Act 9003 (RA 9003). It presents the issues on the implementation of these policies, the status of compliance by the local government, and the recent initiatives and activities to promote proper waste management and recycling. Using the experiences of some selected case studies, it illustrates the potentials and benefits of recycling both in addressing the waste management problems and in alleviating poverty. This paper concludes that the application of good governance through participation of various stakeholders, strong awareness campaigns, and promotion and replication of innovative and appropriate technologies are necessary to achieve sound waste management and sustainable recycling industry.
6.1 Background of hazardous waste imported to Japan from Asian countries
6.2 The Raw Material Import Duty Reduction System for Export Industries
6.3 Case Studies of the Impact of Raw Material Import Duty Reduction Systems on Promotion of International Waste Trading
6.4 On Policy Implications of Win-Win International Waste Trading Between Japan and Asian Countries
This chapter pointed out from case studies in Asian countries that the structural impacts of a raw material import duty reduction system on promoting international waste trading. Export industries in Asian countries avoid inconvenient procedures and taxes, so it seems difficult for local recycling companies to collect scrap and recyclable materials. And this chapter discussed that the policy implications of win-win international waste trading between Japan and Asian countries, compared with the operation of the Basel Convention and the trade management systems of Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong.
7.1 History of Large-scale Shipbreaking and Iron Recycling: From East Asia to South Asia
7.2 Sources of Competitiveness in the Shipbreaking Industry
7.3 Responsibility for Recycling: Shipowners or Shipbreakers?
7.4 Problems of Large-sized Shipbreaking and Measure for International Treaty
7.5 The IMO Ship Recycling Convention
7.6 Assignment of Responsibility in Design of Institutional Arrangements
7.7 Conclusion and Discussion
In this chapter, we start with a brief history of the shipbreaking business from the middle of the 1960. And then, we discuss the main reasons why the industry shifted between countries, and describe the problems that arose from about 1990 onward, such as industrial accidents and environmental pollution. Also, we explain outline of “the Hong Kong Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships” (the Ship Recycling Convention) concluded by IMO as an international measure to combat those problems, briefly, and show why it is important to build a sound ship recycling system through institutional arrangements.
8.2 Uncovered cases of illegal and illicit transboundary movement of waste
8.3 Points of comparison among the cases
8.4 Measures to prevent further illegal and illicit trade
Cases of illegal and illicit transboundary movement of hazardous waste have been uncovered in Asian countries and other regions. In the case of illicit trade, what importing country regard as hazardous waste may be regarded as hazardous waste. This paper reviews some cases of illegal and illicit shipments, in which Asian countries are exporter and/or importer. are related to and extracts lessons from them. We found that illegal and illicit transboundary movements have different background. To prevent legal and illicit transboundary shipments of hazardous waste, appropriate countermeasures and policy should be taken by governments in the region.