This paper examines the situation and characteristics of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the construction industry of Burkina Faso. The study is based on the available literature and the findings of a detailed firm-level questionnaire survey, and it aims to identify those crucial factors, both external and internal, that impede the growth of SMEs throughout the construction industry of Sub-Saharan Africa in general and Burkina Faso in particular. The results indicate that many of the constraints found in other African countries are also found in Burkina Faso: 1) lack of qualified engineers and construction-related equipments; 2) high factor costs affecting the business operation; 3) difficulties of starting up a business; 4) highly bureaucratic tender process; 5) delay of payment; 6) requirement of unofficial payment; 7) competition with foreign-owned construction companies; 8) very weak voluntary professional and business associations; 9) lack of available business services provided by either government or non-governmental agencies; and 10) inadequate accessibility to financial services. However, while the adoption of such flexible labor practices as labor-only sub-contracting is considered a constraint owing to poor work habits and low productivity in general, flexible labor practice is nevertheless the only way for smaller construction enterprises who have to deal with such unpredictable and fluctuating construction demands to survive in the industry; this is particularly true of unregistered construction enterprises in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, the legal and regulatory framework is insufficiently supportive of the business environment while administrative barriers to private investment still need to be removed, as is the case in other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.