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望月 克哉 編
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The global environmental regimes, which had become effective in 1974 by Cocoyoc Declaration, was replaced by the regimes for the environment and development of developing countries at the end of the 1980’s as an effect of the disappearance of the East-West confrontation. However, this disappearance in turn highlighted the North-South confrontations, which had been substantially weakened by the beginning of the 1980’s at the UN General Assembly, UNCTAD, etc. The major actors in negotiations for regimes switched from environmentalists to diplomats, particularly those at the permanent missions to the UN headquarters. Also, the negotiations were hosted by the UN General Assembly, which is a political organ, instead of UNEP. As different regimes were negotiated by the same diplomats, such regimes were interlinked. In this process, certain restrictions were imposed on sovereignty of States. Even for the Convention to Combat Desertification, in which both causes and results are local, such restrictions were introduced. While negotiators have switched to diplomats, the responsibilities for implementation have remained mostly with environmentalists, who have no substantial experiences, knowledge or even legal power for the development of developing countries. The significant differences among developing countries further complicate the implementation.