Agglomeration Economies in the Formal and Informal Sectors: A Bayesian Spatial Approach

Discussion Papers


by Kiyoyasu TANAKA and Yoshihiro HASHIGUCHI

May 2017


This paper examines whether localized clusters of similar industries produce agglomeration economies in the formal and informal sectors. We develop a Bayesian method to estimate a spatial autoregressive model with an endogenous independent variable. We use establishment-level census data that cover both formal registered and informal unregistered establishments in Cambodia. We find that the density of local employment has a significantly positive effect on productivity in the informal sector, but little effect in the formal sector. For manufacturing, a doubling of employment density increases productivity in the informal sector by 9% through local linkages and by 17% through spatial multiplier linkages, leading to a 26% increase in total. A spatial network magnifies the local impact of agglomeration economies in the informal sector.

Keywords: Agglomeration economies, Informal sector, Cambodia, Bayes
JEL classification: C11, C21, C26, H26, O17, R12

Please note that discussion papers are works in various stages of progress and most have not been edited and proofread and may contain errors of fact or judgment. Revised versions of these papers may subsequently appear in more formal publication series. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s). The IDE does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included and accepts no responsibility for any consequences arising from its use.