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Determinants of Political Tolerance: A Literature Review

Discussion Papers


March 2011


This paper reviews the current literature on political tolerance with particular reference to its individual- and aggregate-level determinants. Individual-level determinants such as authoritarianism, education, contact, and threat perception are found to have robust effects on tolerance. What are less known are the mediating factors that enhance or reduce these effects. In recent years, increasing attention has been directed toward the impact of contextual factors on threat and contact effects.

Keywords: political tolerance, authoritarianism, education, contact, threat, ethnicity

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