Reports & Publications

Income Disparity among Persons with Disabilities Assessed by Education and Sex: Findings from a Field Survey Conducted in Metro Manila, the Philippines

Discussion Papers


by Jose Ramon Albert, Soya Mori , Celia Reyes, Aubrey Tabuga, and Tatsufumi Yamagata

October 2010


How do persons with disabilities (PWDs) earn a living? From the view point of poverty reduction, this question is quite critical in developing countries. This paper presents an investigation of economic activities of PWDs in the Philippines where, among developing countries, disability-related legislation is relatively progressive. In 2008, a field survey was conducted in cooperation with Disability People’s Organizations (DPOs) using a tailor-made questionnaire in four representative cities of Metro Manila. The level and determinants of income of PWDs were examined with Mincer regression. Conclusions are as follows: (1) The incidence and depth of poverty are greater among sample PWDs than that of the total population in Metro Manila. (2) There is remarkable income disparity among PWDs which is associated with education and sex. (3) After controlling individual, parental, and environmental characteristics, it was found that female PWDs are likely to earn less than male PWDs due to fewer opportunities to participate in economic activities. It is suggested that female PWDs are doubly handicapped in earning income.

Keywords: Disability; Philippines; Poverty; Rate of return on education; Gender; Mincer regression; Heckman selection model.
JEL classification: D31, I12, I20, I31, J16, J31, O53

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Questionnaire (917KB)
Data (814KB)

Please note that discussion papers are works in various stages of progress and most have not been edited and proofread and may contain errors of fact or judgment. Revised versions of these papers may subsequently appear in more formal publication series. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s). The IDE does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included and accepts no responsibility for any consequences arising from its use.