skip to contents.

Industrial Development in Myanmar: Prospects and Challenges



Edited by KUDO Toshihiro
Published in 2001


Contents pdf (324KB)
Introduction pdf (644KB) / Toshihiro Kudo
Chapter 1
1. Introduction
2. Historical changes in Industrial Policy
3. Impact of Economic Reforms on the Industrial Structure
 3-1. Classification of Industries
 3-2. GDP
 3-3. Labor Force
 3-4. External Trade
4. Impact of Economic Reforms on Ownership Pattern: Emergence of Private Sector
 4-1. GDP
 4-2. Business Registration
 4-3. Private Manufacturing Firms
5. Recent Policy Development: Backlash against Liberalization?
6. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 2
Economic Reforms and Business Organization: Property Rights Approach / Tin Win

Part One: Property Rights and Agency Problems under Socialism
1. Introduction
2. Property Rights Structure in State Economic Enterprises
3. Property Rights Structure in the Private Sector
 3-1. Agriculture Sector
 3-2. Private Businesses in Other Economic Sectors
 3-3. Property Rights Structure in Co-operative Societies
  3-3-1. The Rights of the Members and Formation of Management
  3-3-2. Acquisition of Share Capital and Profit Distribution

Part Two: Property Rights and Agency Problems in the Transition Period
1. Introduction
2. Reforms of State Economic Enterprises (SEE)
3. Privatization and Joint Ventures (State-Owned Enterprises)
4. Deregulation in the private Sector
 4-1. Agriculture Sector
 4-2. Private Businesses in Other Economic Sectors
 4-3. Restructuring of Co-operative Societies
5. Conclusion


Chapter 3
The Emerging Myanmar Entrepreneurs in the 1990s / Nu Nu Yin
1. The Rise of Entrepreneurship
2. Entrepreneurial Traits
3. Myanmar Entrepreneurs in the 1990s
4. Structure of Industries in Myanmar
5. Current Status of the private Industries
6. Study on Selected Entrepreneurs of Outstanding Industries
 6-1. Entrepreneurs of Food Products
 6-2. Entrepreneurs of Wood Based Industry
 6-3. Entrepreneurs of Motor Vehicle and Repairs Industry
 6-4. Entrepreneurs of Textile Industry
 6-5. Entrepreneurial Characteristics Found in Outstanding Industries
 6-6. Factors of Business Inauguration
 6-7. Barriers Faced by Entrepreneurs
7. Conclusion

Chapter 4
Textile and Garment Industry: Emerging Export Industry / Moe Kyaw
1. Introduction
2. History of Textile Industry in Myanmar
3. Overview of Myanmar Textile and Garment Industry
 3-1. Myanmar Local Textile and Garment Industry
  3-1-1. Local Demand of Textile and Garment
  3-1-2. Raw Materials
  3-1-3. Manufacturing Process for Local Industry
  3-1-4. Wages and Working Conditions for Local Textile and Garment Industry
  3-1-5. Business Environment for Local Manufacturers
 3-2. Export Orientated Textile and Garment Industry
  3-2-1. Overview
  3-2-2. Reason for Export Oriented Garment Industry Emerging in Myanmar
  3-2-3. major Markets and Exported Products
  3-2-4. Difference Between Local and Foreign Garment Companies
  3-2-5. Wages and Working Conditions for Export Oriented Textile and Garment Industry
  3-2-6. Business Environment for Export Oriented Manufacturing
  3-2-7. Marketing for Orders
  3-2-8. Profitability and Competitiveness
4. Myanmar Textile and Garment Industry Contribution to Myanmar Economic Development
5. Cotton Industry
6. Current Status of Myanmar Textile Garment Industry
7. Difficulties Encountered and Remedies
 7-1. Consumer resistance to Made in Myanmar
 7-2. Energy
 7-3. Documentation for Import & Export Procedure
 7-4. Raw Materials
 7-5. banking &Finance
 7-6. Marketing
 7-7. Production
 7-8. Labour
8. Forecast of Industry for Next Five Years
 8-1. Abolishment of the Quota System
 8-2. Myanmar Joining AFTA
 8-3. Myanmar's 5Year Industrialization Plan
 8-4. Development of the Cotton Industry
9. Recommendations for Development and Competitiveness
10. Conclusion

Chapter 5
Wood-Based Industry: From Import-Substitution to Export-Oriented / Maung Maung
1. Introduction
 1-1. Brief Description of SME in Myanmar
 1-2. Issue: Is Wood-based Industry an Promising Industry?
  1-2-1. Internal Structure of Wood-based Industry
  1-2-2. WBI and Trade Opportunity
 1-3. Scope and Method of Study
2. Recent Government Policy: Economic and Environment Perspective
 2-1. Argument: Export of Value-added Product Can Derive More Income Than Export of Primary Product
 2-2. Current Issue: The Needs of Third Party's Recommendation for Forest Export
3. Development of Wood-based Industry
 3-1. Demand and Supply of Forest Products
 3-2. Wood-Based Industries
  3-2-1. Primary Processing Industries
  3-2-2. Secondary Processing Industries
 3-3. Recent Conditions of Private WBI
 3-4. ownership
4. Challenges faced by WBI
 4-1. Operating and Manufacturing of WBI
 4-2. Marketing and Trading of Forest products
5. Conclusion

Chapter 6
Machinery Industry: From Repair Workshop to Supporting Industry / Kyaw Min Htun
1. Introduction
 1-1. Definition of the Machinery Industry
 1-2. Development of the Machinery Industry in Myanmar in Retrospect
  1-2-1. The Late Kone-Baung Era (before 1885)
  1-2-2. Colonial Era (1885-1947)
  1-2-3. Independence Era (1948-1962)
  1-2-4. Socialist Era (1962-1988)
  1-2-5. Transition to Market Economy Era (1988 onwards)
2. Characteristics of the Machinery Industry: 1988 Onwards
 2-1. Production
 2-2. number of Establishments and Employment
 2-3. Concentration
 2-4. Demand, Supply and Import
3. Government Policies and Performance to Develop the Machinery Industry in Myanmar
 3-1. Development of the Machinery Industry in the Public Sector
 3-2. Development of the Machinery Industry in the Private Sector
4. Challenges Encountered by the Machinery Industry: Survey Results
 4-1. Profiles
 4-2. Electricity Shortage
 4-3. Competition in the Industry
 4-4. Aging Machines and Lack of Technical Know-how
 4-5. Dual Structure and Lack of Linkages
 4-6. Shortage of Raw Materials and Parts
 4-8. Lack of Good Infrastructure
 4-9. human Resource Development and Related Problems
5. Conclusion


Chapter 7
Food Processing Industry: Prospects and Problems / Aung
1. Introduction
2. Overview on the Development of Food Processing Industry
 2-1. Import Substituted Food Processing Industries
3. Survey Finding
 3-1. Industry Profile and Performance
 3-2. Industries Located in Yangon
  3-2-1. Industry Character
  3-2-2. Production and Sale
  3-2-3. Labour and Welfare
 3-3. The Industries that Located in Countryside
  3-3-1. Industry Character
  3-3-2. Production and Sale
  3-3-3. Labour and Welfare
4. Challenges
 4-1. Technological Capacity
 4-2. Main Obstacles of Industrial Development
5. Conclusion


Chapter 8
Dual Technology in Industrial Development: The Role of The State / Myat Thein
1. Introduction
2. Technological Ladder
3. Dual Technology
4. Current Situation
5. Conclusion