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Economic Disparity In Rural Myanmar  -Transformation under Market Liberalization-

Co-publication with Other Foreign Publishers

NUS PRESS SINGAPORE


Co-publication with Other Foreign Publishers Economic Disparity In Rural Myanmar ■ Economic Disparity In Rural Myanmar -Transformation under Market Liberalization-
■ Edited by OKAMOTO Ikuko
■ £45.00
■ 239pp.
■ Published in June 2008
■ ISBN978-9971-69-431-9
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CONTENTS

List of Table
List of Figures
List of Illustration
Acknowledgement
Notes on Some Technical Issues

  1. Introduction
  2. Policies and Performance of Myanmar AgriCulture in Transition
  3. Thongwa:Development of Green Gram Producing Area
  4. Farmers' Adoption of Green Gram and Its Determining Factors
  5. Green Gram and Income Distribution
  6. Non-Farmers and Green Gram: Labor Demand and Credit
  7. Traders in Green Gram Rural Marketing
  8. Capital and Credit in the Development of Green Gram
  9. Conclusion

Notes
Bibliography
Index

LIST OF TABLES

TableII-1 Changes in Procurement of Major Scheduled Crops
TableII-2 Major Changes in Agricultural Policies
TableII-3 Myanmar's Economy and Agriculture
TableII-4 Changes in Sown Acres of Major Crops
TableII-5 Changes in Sown Acres of Summer Paddy
TableII-6 Development of Irrigation
TableII-7 Changes in Prices for Selected Crops at Harvest Time
TableII-8 Changes in Agricultural(Crop Sector) Exports
TableII-9 Changes in Sown Acres and Production of Pulses
TableII-10 Changes in Production and Export of Pulses
TableII-11 Destinations of Exports of Three Major Pulses and Green Gram

TableIII-1 Green Gram Producing Townships
TableIII-2 Changes in Sown Acres of Dry Season Crops in Thongwa
TableIII-3 Distribution of Households in the Study Villages
TableIII-4 Changes in Sown Acres of Green Gram and Its Ratio to Paddy Sown Acres
TableIII-5 Basic Information of Sample Farm Households
TableIII-6 Land Distribution of Three Villages
TableIII-7 Assets of Sample Farm Households
TableIII-8 Basic Information of Sample Non-Farm Households
TableIII-9 Employment Structure of Sample Non-Farm Households
TableIII-10 Family Background of Sample Non-Farm Households
TableIII-11 Characteristics of Green Gram Traders

TableIV-1 Some Examples of Changes in the Yield in the Initial Years
TableIV-2 Timing of Adoption
TableIV-3 Characteristics of Household according to the Years of Green Gram Cultivation
TableIV-4 Intensity of Adoption
TableIV-5 Extent of Adoption
TableIV-6 Comparison of Plowing Cost of Green Gram and paddy
TableIV-7 Changes in Tractor Plowing Fee per Acre in Village T
TableIV18 Tractor Rentals to Thongwa by AMD
TableIV-9 Cost and Revenue for Tractor Owners
TableIV-10 Cost and Revenue for Tractor Intermediaries
TableIV-11 Cost and Revenue Structure of Green Gram Production according to the Cultivation Experience
TableIV-12 Interest Rates for Tractor flowing Fees
TableIV-13 Utilization of Post Harvest Payment of Tractor Rentals and Attributes of Farmers
TableIV-14 Advance Payments by Primary Collectors to Farmers
TableIV-15 Farmers Utilizing Output Credit-Tying Arrangements
TableIV-16 Paddy Income and Sown Acres
TableIV-17 Comparison of Economic Surplus per Acre

TableIV-A1 Informal Credit Taken Out by Farm Households
TableIV-A2 Cost and Revenue Structure of Green Gram Production according to Sown Acres
TableIV-A3 Determinants of Green Gram Yield
TableIV-A4 Cost and Revenue Structure of Green Gram and Paddy Production in Three Villages

TableV-1 Farm Household Income and Sources
TableV-2 Determinants of Green Gram Income per Household
TableV-3 Changes in Cash Income per Acre according to Cultivation Experience
TableV-4 Green Gram Income and Loans
TableV-5 Asset Holdings according to the Level of Income from Green Gram
TableV-6 Income Structure of Tractor Owners in Village T
TableV-7 Type of Wage Payments to Seasonal Laborers
TableV-8 Comparison of Income of Non-Farmers
TableV-9 Impact of Green Gram on Non-Farm Household Income
TableV-10 Income Estimate of Traders in Thongwa
TableV-11 Income Increase due to Green Gram Trading (Primary Collectors)
TableV-12 Income Increase due to Green Gram Trading (Town Wholesalers)
TableV-13 Comparison of Income Level
TableV-14 Comparison of Increase of Income Level due to Green Gram
TableV-15 Comparison of Income Level in US Dollars

TableVI-1 Employment Patterns from Actual Working Days
TableVI-2 Comparison of Factor Payments to Labor
TableVI-3 Changes in Real Wage in Terms of Rice Wage
TableVI-4 Household Debts of Non-Farmers
TableVI-5 Share of the Agricultural Daily Laborers Receiving Advance Wages
TableVI-6 Average Number of Days of Loans and Amount of Wage Payments to Daily Laborers
TableVI-7 Advance Wage Payments to Seasonal Laborers
TableVI-8 Interest Rates on Advance Wage Payments to Daily Laborers
TableVI-9 Interest Rates on Advance Wage Payments to Seasonal Laborers

TableVII-1 Trading Partners of Thongwa Wholesalers
TableVII-2 Rate of Return for Green Gram Traders
TableVII-3 Entry Year of Primary Collectors
TableVII-4 Attributes of Primary Collectors
TableVII-5 Attributes of Farmer-Collectors
TableVII-6 Entry Year of Town Wholesalers
TableVII-7 Attributes of Town Wholesalers
TableVII-8 Value of Working Capital and its Financing of Primary Collectors
TableVII-9 Value of Working Capital and its Financing of Town Wholesalers
TableVII-10 Share of Own Capital for Primary Collectors
TableVII-11 Share of Own Capital for Town Wholesalers
TableVII-12 Advance Payments to Primary Collectors by Wholesalers
TableVII-13 Entry Year and Length of Experience with the Recipient Primary Collectors
TableVII-14 Estimation of Margin on Green Gram Transactions
TableVII-15 Usage of Transportation Means
TableVII-A1 Rate of Return for Green Gram Wholesalers including the Two Big Traders

TableVIII-1 Changes in Official Agricultural Loans
TableVIII-2 Informal Loans Taken Out by Primary Collectors
TableVIII-3 Informal Loans Taken Out by Town Wholesalers
TableVIII-4 Source and Usage of Informal Loans of Farmers
TableVIII-5 Farmers' Credit from Non-Relatives
TableVIII-6 Farmers' Credit from Relatives
TableVIII-7 Source and Usage of Informal Loans of Non-Farmers
TableVIII-8 Non-Farmers' Credit from Non-Relatives
TableVIII-9 Non-Farmers' credit from Relatives

LIST OF FIGURES

FigureII -l Changes in Export Share
FigureII-2 Long-Term Paddy Production Trends
FigureII-3 Comparison of Domestic Wholesale Price and International Price of Rice
FigureII-4 Country Share of Indian Pulses Imports
FigureII-5 Comparison of Domestic Wholesale Price and International Price of Pulse (Black Gram)
FigureII-6 Changes in Production of Black Gram according to States & Divisions
FigureII-7 Changes in Production of Pigeon Pea according to States & Divisions
FigureII-8 Changes in Production of Green Gram according to States & Divisions

FigureIII-1 Location of Thongwa Township
FigureIII-2 Agricultural Calendar
FigureIII-3 Changes in Monthly Rainfall in Thongwa
FigureIII-4 Changes in Sown Acreage of Green Gram and Paddy in Thongwa Township
FigureIII-5 Township Average Yield of Green Gram
FigureIII-6 Location of Study Villages
FigureIII-7 Comparison of Asset Holdings

FigureV-1 Share of Expenditure on Rice and Edible Oil in Total Household income

FigureVI-1 Agricultural Operations and Laborers

FigureVII-1 Marketing Chain of Green Gram
FigureVII-2 Economic Share of Each Actor per Unit of Green Gram Export
FigureVII-3 Rate of Return on Green Gram Marketing for Primary Collectors
FigureVII-4 Rate of Return on Green Gram Marketing for Town Wholesalers
FigureVII-5 Distribution of Holding Acreages of Farmer-Collectors
FigureVII-A1 Rate of Return on Green Gram Marketing for Town Wholesalers including the Two Big Traders

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

  1. 1. Villagers traveling between villages
  2. Post harvesting work of paddy is undergoing slowly after green gram was planted
  3. Pedishwewar
  4. A farmer with his tractor
  5. Tractors in the MEH tractor station
  6. A female green gram harvesting laborer
  7. A farmer and laborers after completing the work for the day
  8. A farmer settling the wages for the day
  9. A green gram purchasing depot
  10. The crop exchange center for pulses and beans in Bayint Naumg Wholesale Market