Development and the Environment  -The Experiences of Japan and Industrializing Asia

Development and the Environment Series


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■ Development and the Environment -The Experiences of Japan and Industrializing Asia
■ Edited by Reeitsu Kojima and others
■ 5,400円(本体価格 5,000円)
■ B5判
■ 472pp
■ Published in 1995


Preface / Reeitsu Kojima, Yoshihiro Nomura, Shigeaki Fujisaki, Naoyuki Sakumoto

An Overview / Shigeaki Fujisaki


I. Rethinking Economic Growth and Its Implication for Resources and the Environment
 1. The right to develop and the growth debate
 2. The impact of growth on resources and the environment
 3. The "steady-state" theory revisited

II. Global Environment Problems and the Developing Countries
 1. The Earth Summit and the developing countries
 2. Environmental awareness and the advantages of backwardness
 3. Poverty and the environment - The tasks confronting the developing countries

I. Characteristics of Environmental Problems in East Asia
II. Characteristics of Environmental Law in East Asia
 1. Forms of environmental laws and how they are enacted
 2. Relationship with the reception of law
III. Environmental Law: New Developments and Their Background
 1. Stages of development in environmental law
 2. Directions in environmental law developments
 3. Background of developments in environmental law


3. The Development of Japanese Environmental Policy, and Its Implications for Asian Countries / Toshiko Akiyama

I. Japanese Environmental Policy and Its Features
 1. Concept and philosophy of environmental policy
 2. Pollution control and conservation of the natural environment
 3. Environmental quality standards and effluent/emission standards
 4. Direct regulation
 5. Subsidy and the polluter pays principle
 6. Institutional measures
 7. Pollution control technologies
 8. Environmental policy of local governments
 9. Citizens' participation and freedom of information
II. Future Tasks
 1. The relationship between environmental policy and other major policies
 2. Social institutions for dealing with large ecosystems
III. Implications for Other Asian Countries

I. Introduction
II. Pollution Control Policy in Japan : Some Critical Issues
 1. Environmental regulation vs. technological development : The case of car exhaust standards
 2. The role of local government in pollution control
III. Polluter Pays Principle: The Case of Japan
 1. Environmental expenses in Japan
 2. Pollution control investment costs
 3. Subsidizing policy vs. polluter pays principle
IV. Thinking of the Japanese Model
V. Conclusion

I. Introduction - The Purposes of This Paper -
II. Historical Overview of Pollution Issues in Japan
 1. Pollution problems before the Meiji era
 2. Aggravation of pollution in the Meiji era
 3. Changes in pollution issues in the Taisho period and the early Showa period
 4. Further aggravation of pollution in postwar Japan
III. Critical Analysis of "Successful" Anti-Pollution Measures in Japan
 1. Measures for SOx control since the latter halt of the 1960s
 2. Reasons for the success of Japan's SOx control measures, and their limitations
IV. Conclusion - Characteristics of Japan's Environmental Policy and Future Issues

6.World Bank Metropolitan Environmental improvement Program(MEIP):Results of a Study on the Japanese Experience in Urban Environmental Management, and Summary of the Japan Seminar / Kazuhiko Takemoto//Nahoko Nakazawa

I. Introduction
II. Summary of the National Report
 1. The Japanese experience
 2. Evaluation of Japan's experience
 3. Conclusion
III. Summary of the Case Studies (Common Issues)
 1. Common Issues
 2. Special Characteristics of each city
IV. Summary of the Japan Seminar
V. Summary

7.Experiences and Future Perspective of Japan's Energy Strategy / Haruki Tsuchiya

I. The Energy Situation During the Last 20 Years
 1. The oil crisis
 2. Seconds energy crisis
 3. Global warming
 4. Historical experiences
II. Energy Strategy to Cop With Global Warming
III. The Long-Term Energy Supply and Demand Outlook
IV. End-Use Efficiency Improvement and Renewables
V. Macroeconomic Frame
VI. Energy Balance Table
VII. The Policies of the alternate Scenario
 1. Improved efficiency in the industrial sector
 2. More efficient electric appliances
 3. Improved efficiency in the residential and commercial sector
 4. Fuel-efficiency improvements in automobiles and trucks
 5. Reforming social infrastructure
 6. Introduction of cogeneration systems
 7. Low-carbon fuels
 8. Renewable energy
VIII. Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions
IX. Lifestyle Change - The Last Card
X. Toward an Energy Cultivating Civilization

8.Recent Trends of Pollution Suits and the Impacts of Case Law / Shoichi Ogano

I. Recent Trends of Pollution Suits
 1. Compounded air pollution in big cities
 2. Air pollution from automobile exhaust gas
 3. Water pollution by organic mercury
 4. Conclusion
II. The Impacts of Case of Law
 1. Impacts on the evolution of legal theory surrounding illegal acts
 2. Impacts on new legal systems and policies of the national government
 3. Impacts on protest movement by affected residents

I. Introduction
II. Japan's Lawyer System
III. Environmental Lawsuits and Lawyers
 1. Early cases
 2. Cases from 1975 and thereafter
IV. Activities of JFBA and the District Bar Associations
 1. Surveys
 2. Symposium reports
 3. Publication of opinions
 4. Legislative proposals
 5. Publications
V. JFBA's international Activities
VI. The Significance and Character of Lawyers' Activities in Japan
VII. Hoped-for Future Role of Lawyers

I. History
 1. Origin of pollution problems in Japan
 2. Postwar pollution and ordinances
 3. Shift from ordinances to laws
 4. Shift from separate laws to basic framework law
 5. "Pollution Diet" in 1970
 6. Court ruling on four major pollution lawsuits
 7. From pollution to environmental protection
 8. Review of Japanese policy by OECD Environment Committee
 9. Japan's economic growth and global environment
 10. Global environmental problems
 11. UNCED and basic environment law
II. Structure and Characteristics of Japan's Environment Law
 1. Systemic characteristic of Japan's environment law
 2. Characteristics of pollution control laws
 3. Characteristics of Japan's natural environment protection law
III. Basic Environment Law and Future Problems
 1. Philosophy (Articles 3-5)
 2. Responsibilities (Articles 6-9)
 3. Basic policy measures on environmental conservation

I. Introduction
II. Environmental Problems and Environment Administration in Yokohama City
 1. Present state of and countermeasures to air pollution
 2. The history of environmental policy of Yokohama municipal government
 3. Air pollution control and the evaluation of the Yokohama system
III. Conclusion


12.Influences of China's Industrial Development on Environment / Deng Xueming, Wang Fenyu, Wu XinXin

I. Industrial Development since the Adoption of Reform and Open-Door Policies
 1. General trend of industrial growth
 2.Development of township enterprises
II. Environmental Pollution Caused by Industrial Development
 1. Atmospheric pollution caused by industry
 2. Water pollution caused by industry
 3.Pollution caused by solid industrial wastes
III. Chinese Government Endeavors and Goals for Controlling Industrial Pollution in the 1990s
 1. Monitoring and Controlling industrial pollution sources in 300 key pollution industrial enterprises
 2. Monitoring to cope with the 10 major polluting industries of the township enterprises
IV. Main Factors Causing Industrial Pollution, and Main Measures Enacted
 1. Imperfect systems of environment policies, laws and regulations
 2.Antiquated production technology and equipment
 3.An imperfect system of environmental protection offices
 4.Poor sense of the environment

13.Environmenta Law and Administration:The Case of China / Zou Hailin

I. Introduction
II. Chinese Environmental Laws and Their Situations
 1. Constitutional environmental provisions
 2. Basic Environmental Protection Law
 3. Laws for protecting environmental components against pollution
 4. Laws concerning the rational use and protection of natural resources
 5. Environmental regulation and rules
 6. Environmental provisions under other laws
 7. Basic systems for the environmental protection and improvement
 8. The prospects for Chinese environmental law
III. The Environmental Administration in China
 1. The structure of environmental administration
 2. Strengthening the environmental administration
 3. Compulsory measures for environmental administration
 4. Reconsideration and procedures by environmental administration
 5. Environmental administrative mediation
IV. Conclusion

I. Rapid Economic Growth and Industrial Structures in East Asia
II. Consumption - The Rapid Spread of the American Way of Life
III. China's Inherently Negative Environmental Conditions
IV. Development Over Time of Environment Measures and Their Achievement in China
 1. Development of environmental policies
 2. Achievement and the present state of affairs
 3. Investment in environmental protection
V. In Light of the Japanese Experience

15.Tradeoff between Economic Development and Environmental Protection:The Case of Taiwan / Yuen D.Sung

I. Introduction
II. Economic Development in Taiwan
III. Environmental Problems in Taiwan
 1. Environmental pollution
 2.Natural resource conservation
IV. Industry Responses to Environment Regulations
V. Government Policy Formation and Law Enforcement
VI. Conclusion

16.The Political Economy of Industrial Pollution in Taiwan / Tadayoshi Terao

I. Introduction
II. State of Economic Development and Pollution
III. The Development of Heavy Industries and Its Pollution by Public Enterprises
The petroleum industry Thermal power plants
IV. Pollution by Medium and Small Enterprises : Metal Scrap Treaters
V. Pollution Prevention Investments by Enterprises
VI. The Deterioration of the Investment Environment and Responses of Large-Scale Private Enterprises
VII. "Developmentalism" and Industrial Pollution - Taiwan's Experience
VIII. Measures against Pollution and "the Advantages of Backgroundness"

17.The Complex Assortment of Economic Incentives for Environmental Protection:A Focus on Taiwan's Experiences / Ching Pou Shih, Tsong-Juh Chiu

I. Introduction - The Ideal and the Achievement of Economic Incentives for Environmental Protection
II. Economic Incentives Used on Taiwan: A Hospital Overview
 1. Economic incentive
 2. Development of the Economic incentives
III. Economic Incentives in Taiwan: An Analysis of the Current Situation
 1. The effluent free system
 2. The good neighbor expenditures
 3. The arrangement of the power development foundation
IV. Economic Incentives in Taiwan: Affirmative or Negative Effects
 1. Affirmative functions of the ERM
 2. Painful experiences
 3. Hesitation and indecision in economic incentives
V. What the Future Holds - In Lieu of a Conclusion

I. Background of Taegu Incident
II. The Nagdonggng River Phenol Pollution Incident
III. Problems Involved
 1. Problems with industrial policy and industrial structure
 2. Anti-chaebol feelings
 3. Problems in the environment preservation system
 4. Media responses

19.The Political Economy of Environmental Protection in Korea / Dalgom Lee

I. Introduction
II. Environmental Protection in the Development Era
III. Conservative Policy Responses
IV. Changes in Politics
V. Promoting Partnership and Cooperation

20.Economic Growth and the Environment:Korea's Experience and the Policies for Sustainable Development / San-gon Lee

I. Introduction
II. Review of the Economic Development
 1. Overview
 2. Review of development and Policies
 3. Recent changes since 1986
III. Development and the Environmental Issues
 1. Industrial structure
 2. Energy and environment
 3. Urbanization and traffic congestion
IV. The State of the Environment
 1. Air pollution
 2. Water pollution
 3. Waste
 4. Coastal marine pollution
V. Environmental Policy : Directions and the Measures for Sustainable Development
 1. Introduction and review
 2. Environmental policy in the new economy plan
 3. Policy "infrastructure"
 4. Other measures and programs


I. Economic Development and Structural Changes in Thailand's Economy
II. Development of Industrial Policy
III. Progress in Industrialization
 1. Petrochemicals
 2. Steel
 3. Paper/pulp
 4. Electric/electronics industry
IV. Development of Environment Policies
 1. Present state of industrial pollution
 2. Development of industrial pollution measures
 3. Strengthening of environmental measures under the seventh development plan
 4. New moves by Japanese companies

22.Environmental Protection under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535(A.D.1992) in Thailand / Sunee Mallikamarl

I. The Necessities to Enact the Basic Environmental Law
II. Reason to Amend the Basic Environmental Law
 1. Refusal to accept general public's awareness
 2. Law enforcing agencies
 3. Loopholes of the law
III. Reenactment of Basic Environmental Law
 1. National Environment Board (NEB)
 2. Environmental Fund
 3. Environmental protection
 4. Pollution control
 5. Promotion measures
 6. Civil liability
 7. Penalties
IV. Agencies Responsible
V. Notes on New Principles of Law in Act

23.Development and the Environment:Philippine Forestry Management in Transition / Germelino M.Bautista

I. Economic Development and Natural Resources
II. The Loss of Philippines Forests, State Management of Natural Resources and the Development of the Wood Industry
 1. The loss of Philippine forests
 2. The state's natural resource management
 3. The development of the wood industry
 4. The loss of the forest's regenerative capacity and the role of the state revisited
III. Responses to the Environmental Problem
 1. Information generation
 2. Forest protection and the development and management of the residual forest
 3. Proper pricing of forest resources
 4. Enforcement of forest regulations
 5. The promotion of equity
Concluding Notes : Issues in Efforts to Conserve the Forest

24.Enforcement of Environmental Regulation in Indonesia / Koesnadi Hardjasoemantri

I. Introduction
II. Provisions within the EMA 1982
III. Dissemination of Knowledge on Environmental Regulation

25.Economic Development amd Poluution in Indonesia / Michikazu Kojima, Norio Mihara

I. Macroeconomic Growth and Structural Change
 1. Rapid industrial growth propelled macroeconomic growth
II. Industrial Growth and Structural Change
 1. Structural change in the manufacturing industries
 2. An overview of industries causing heavy environmental burdens
III. State of the Environment
 1. Water pollution
 2.Air pollution
 3.Solid wastes
IV. Environmental Policy
V. Comparison with Japan in the 1960s
VI. Progress in Environmental Policy, and Japan's Experience

26.Economic Development and Environment Management in Malaysia / Sham Sani

I. Introduction
II. Development and Environmental Degradation
III. Environmental Management Responses
IV. Management Issues and Constraints
V. Concluding Remarks

27.Transitional Industrial Operations and Hazardous Waste Management in Developing Countries / Masahisa Nakamura

I. Introduction
II. Direct Investment and Waste Generation : The Malaysian Experience
III. Economic Policy and Environmental Structural Impediments
IV. Overcoming Impediments
 1. Responsibilities of the investing countries
 2. Host countries' responsibilities
V. Concluding Remarks


I. Introduction of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Progress in Industrialization
II. Characteristics of Industrialization in East Asia and Areas for Future Improvement
III. FDI from Asian NIEs Countries : Emergence and Their Influence
IV. Industrialization and Responsibility of Foreign Corporations
V. Responsibility of Host Country
VI. Policy Coordination between FDI Introduction and Environmental Protection

I. Performance of Japanese ODA
 1.Historical background of the emphasis on Asia}
II. Performance of Japanese Environmental ODA
 1. Transfer of technology and know-how
 2. Present level of environmentally-related Japanese ODA
 3. Several problems related to environmental ODA
III. Japan's Role in Post-UNCED Era
 1. The general direction thus far
 2. Technological perspectives
 3. Initiatives in Asia-Pacific region

I. The Issues in Perspective
 1. Environmental problems in perspective
 2. Issues concerning regional cooperation
 3.Prerequisites for regional cooperation
II. The Current State of Regional Cooperation
 1. The East Asian region
 2. Southeast Asia, South Asia and the South Pacific region
 3. The state of environmental cooperation within Asia as a whole
III. Issues and Prospects for Regional Cooperation
 1. Agenda 21 and regional cooperation
 2. Regional cooperation in the ASEAN region and the consensus method
 3. Future issues and prospects for regional cooperation

31.Japan's Role in Global Environmental Protection and Contribution toward Protecting the Marine Environment from Ship-Source Oil Pollution in ASEAN / Chia Lin Sien, Naoyuki Sakumoto

I. Japan's Experience in Environmental Pollution Control
 1. Initiatives by private industry
 2. Protection of the marine environment
 3. Oil spill prevention
II. International Initiatives in Environmental Protection
III. Cooperation with ASEAN in the Environmental Field
IV. Japan's Contribution toward Marine Environmental Protection in the ASEAN Region
 1. The Malacca Strait Council
 2. ASEAN Oil Spill Response Action Plan (OSPAR)

32.The Least-Cost Electricity Path for Asia:The Role of the World Bank and Asian Development Bank / Michael Philips

I. Achieving Electricity Savings
 1. Integrated resource planning
II. Influence of the MDBs on Electric Power Development
III. MDB Electricity Efficiency Assistance in Asia
 1. World Bank and Asian Development Bank loans
 2. Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP)
 3. Asia Technical Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE)
 4. The Global Environment Facility (GEF)
 5. Private sector affiliates 
The MDBs and energy efficiency in China [Column]
IV. Reasons for the Low Level of MDB Investment in Electricity Efficiency
V. Next Steps for the MDBs in Asia Electricity Efficiency